Modes of referring and the problem of universals
Read Online

Modes of referring and the problem of universals an essay in metaphysics. by D S Shwayder

  • 1 Want to read
  • ·
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by University of California Press in Berkeley .
Written in English


  • Universals (Philosophy)

Book details:

Edition Notes

Includes bibliography.

SeriesUniversity of California publications in philosophy,, v. 35
LC ClassificationsB21 .C25 vol. 35
The Physical Object
Paginationx, 164 p.
Number of Pages164
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL5841517M
LC Control Number61063020

Download Modes of referring and the problem of universals


Universals, in transcendental idealism, are intrinsically tied to the rationality of the subject making the judgment. Thus, for transcendental idealists, the problem of universals is only tangentially a metaphysical problem; it is more of a problem of psychology and epistemology. Kant's position has been interpreted as a conceptualist one. He was awarded the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in philosophy from Brown University ()–before which he graduated from Hobart College. His interests were mainly in metaphysics, ethics, and medieval philosophy. He is the author of Introduction to Metaphysics, The Problem of Universals 5/5(1). Only individuals exist; universals are simply a convenience of the human mind. While philosophical interest moved away from the problem by the end of the twelfth century, the nominalists reasserted themselves in the fourteenth century, at which point they triumphed over all other positions. The primary purpose of this book is to depict the main features of the classical problem of universals in order to provide a better understand­ ing of the various suggestions made by the moderns towards the solution of that problem. The work is not historical; however, since knowledge of theBrand: Springer Netherlands.

The great problem of the universals has been "do they exist?" Both Plato and Aristotle have anticipated the Information Philosophy view of Universals. The Universal is simply the information which is a limited subset of the common information found in all the particulars. remained reference-points for centuries. It is these texts that I want to throw some spotlights on. 1. Porphyry and the Ancients In historic terms there is a very exceptional thing about Problem of Universals: it is quite easy to say when the whole thing started. Ok, it File Size: KB. 3. To be sure, there were medieval authors who were skeptical about the reconcilability of Plato and Aristotle on the issue of universals. Cf. the following remark by John of Salisbury (ca. ): “Bernard of Chartres and his students worked hard to reconcile Aristotle and Plato. [The Problem of Universals is] the problem of how numerically different particulars can nevertheless be identical in nature, all be of the same "type". To me, for two particulars a and b to have the same property F, or be of the same type F, simply means that " a is F and b is F*.

The following problem illustrates how the universal time constant chart may be used. An RC circuit is to be designed in which a capacitor (C) must charge to 20 percent () of the maximum charging voltage in microseconds ( second). Because of other considerations, the resistor (R) must have a value of 20, ohms. The treatises on the history of philosophy simplify, generally, the solutions the Scholastic proposed to the problem of the universals, and deal with only three or four main solutions. This simplification is made in order to detect the general directions of the Scholastics' thinking. As we shall see, the problem was far more complicated and subtle. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Shwayder, D.S. Modes of referring and the problem of universals. Berkeley, University of California Press,   This book covers physical and behavioural characteristics that can be considered universal among all cultures and people. The text is divided into three parts: the problems posed for anthropology by universals; six important studies that have forced anthropologists to rethink; and the distinctions between linguistic, cultural and social universals/5.